The baby born of Sage Paraashara and Matsyagandhaa was named as Krushna. Born on a dweepa (island) he was also called Dwaipaayana. He became well-versed in scriptures and earned the title as a Sage. He studied and edited the Revelations and codified them into four Vedas. Subsequently, he wrote Brahmasootras, the essence of Vedas in terse Aphorisms (Sootra is short and terse sentences and phrases, whereas Stotras are poetical Hymns in praise of Gods). Thus we have Vedavyaasa, Vyaasa means an editor, though the common meaning is a diameter.
Vedavyaasa composed 18 Puraanas. Puraana is taken to mean a mythology .Raamaayana and Mahaabhaarata, we call as Itihaasas, history being compiled contemporarily by Vaalmiki and Vyaasa respectively. Bhaagavata is Vyaasa’s final composition which is supposed to have given him supreme peace of mind.
Vyaasa is has given us 400,000 shlokas. Skanda Puraana has 81,000 shlokas. The glorious Bhaagavata has 18,000 shlokas in 18 cantos.
The eleventh canto of Bhaagavata has 33 chapters. Chapters 7 to 29 i.e. 23 chapters are together called Uddhava Geetaa. This comprises parting discourse of Lord Krushna to the venerable Uddhava, who had sensed Lord’s impending departure and had requested for instructions. The Geetaa has 18 chapters, comprising 700 shlokas, whereas Uddhava Geetaa has 23 chapters, with 1031 shlokas.
My good friend, Vasant Madhav Pai had given me a complimentary copy of his book on Uddhava Geetaa.He has followed Shree Madhvachaarya on Dvaita point of view. Aachaaya’s Bhaagavata Taatparya Nirnaya is his best exposition. This article will be more on Advaita view. The two views, however, are just like butter and honey on two sides of our daily bread.
· Chapter One
The phenomenal world is a drama scripted and directed by the Lord. We are all puppets. Sitting in the hearts He stirs up both prescribed and prohibited actions. We are not the doers. We are pure and blissful. The thought that we are the body and doer of actions gets us into trouble. Detachment in all actions, whether prescribed by scriptures or prohibited by them, leads to liberation. Let us remember we are Nimittamaatra, just a tool in God’s hands.
Uddhava is a householder. A constant devoted companion to the Lord. To attain detachment, seek a Guru, the Lord tells him. Book knowledge illumine but does not lead to fulfillment or enlightenment. You may stand face to face with the Lord but you will fail to recognize Him. 24 Gurus of Lord Dattaatreya are mentioned for Uddhava’s guidance.
Guru no. One :Mother Earth. She partakes nothing of her produce for herself, being eaten by everybody else, moving ie man, animals and the like and what is in its bowels is mined by men. She is patient and demands nothing in return. Receives and absorbs the thunderbolts from the sky. A true mother, never complaining. As a Guru, she wants us to share our earnings with brethren. Ever graceful.
Guru no. Two :Air. Carries fragrance and bad odour, with no preference.
Not touched by either. Let the body go through its predestined actions. Remain unconcerned and detached during actions and results thereof. Your goal is God. Never give in to Gunas. Be free flowing like the air, carrying fragrance and coolness at times and bad odours and heat at other times. It has no choice. A spoon does not mind whether it serves sweet or hot food or again bitter or sour.
Guru no. Three: Sky. Clouds come and go. Sky is not affected the least. Does not complain to the air which about nonstop. Bodies come and go. Aatmaa remains untouched. Free, peaceful and blissful.
Guru no. Four : Water. We pollute Mother Gangaa. She depollutes us our dirt ie sins. Strive to be pure in mind, in speech and in actions. You automatically purify others. Not physical purity but mental purity, which is felt as peace by others. A realised soul in a cave atop a mountain can bring peace to people at large even in far-off places. No physical actions are involved.
Guru no. Five : Fire. It consumes whatever is thrown into it. No preference. No refusal. Fire purifies even gold. It carries the oblations to Gods. You keep a distance. A jnaani can consume your sins. A jnaani’s very sight is purifying.
Guru no. Six : Moon. It waxes and wanes for us, but it is full all the time. Do not be taken in by appearances.
Guru no. Seven : Sun : Sun takes in water, but returns it as rains to a wider area. No gain for itself. Paropakaara all the time.
Guru no. Eight : Dove. Be practical, no attachment. Nurse your sick child. Committing suicide fearing the would not survive is foolhardiness.
· Chapter Two
Guru no. Nine : Python. Yadrucchaalaabhasamtushto: accept what comes your way. The huge reptile does not move out in search of food and is happy to swallow what comes its way, big or small. It is not only what comes your way to eat, you accept what meets your eyes, meets your ears etc without waiting or yearning for anything. You act as directed by circumstances, detached and unconcerned and do not worry about the results or consequences. They are passing phases, not affecting you. You are Poorna, self-sufficient and blissful.
Guru no. Ten.: Ocean. Still and calm. At the same time profound, unfathomable and boundless. Accepts all rivers, only to allow the sun to take water so that rains may feed the rivers back and they keep flowing on and on.
Guru no. Eleven. Moth. Fascination draws a moth to the flame-sure death.
There is no pleasure on physical plane which does end with misery if not death even in the extreme. Eyes ( sight ) betray the moth, ears ( hearing )the deer, skin ( touch )the elephant, nose ( smell ) the bee and tongue ( taste ) the fish. Man is ensnared by all five senses and most vulnerable.
Guru no. Twelve: Bee. They labour hard but hoard. Hoarding beyond needs is to be avoided.
Guru no. Thirteen: The honey-collector. The man just collects the honey collected so laboriously by the little bees. No labour, only profit, an unfair profit. (Guru is not only the one who teaches you to do the right but also the one who demonstrates what is to be avoided. )
Guru no. Fourteen. Elephant. A female elephant is employed to tame down a male elephant just captured from the wild. Don’t be overwhelmed by the opposite sex and consequently be captured.
Guru no. Fifteen: Deer. Lured by the horn of the hunter, a deer is ensnared
Guru no. Sixteen : Fish. Attracted by the bait the fish loses its life. Let attraction to Krushna be the only attraction in life be ensured of life of freedom.
Guru no. Seventeen : Pingalaa. A courtesan of Mithilaa, who felt remorse for her past, made amends and attained salvation.
· Chapter Three
Guru no. Eighteen: Kurara. ( A bird, Osprex ) It had a piece of meat in its beak and was chased by all other birds. It could get peace only after it let go of the meat. Possessions are cause of all troubles.
Guru no. Nineteen. Child. Innocence. No possessions. Supremely happy with its mother. Its tendencies and propensities are latent. Once they germinate, all problems begin.A Sage’s mind is purified of all dross. ( all tendencies and propensities being burnt in fire of Jnaana.)
Guru no. Twenty: Maiden. She had bangles full on both her arms. They made sounds as she moved her hands while she worked. As the bangles began breaking one by one, the sound reduced. Finally when only one bangle each was left on each hand, sound ceased altogether. Minimum possessions promise peace and happiness.
Guru no. Twenty-one: Ironsmith. He is unaware of surroundings while at work. He would be deaf and dumb even if the King went in procession with band at the loudest.
That is level of concentration required while meditating on God.
Guru no. Twenty-two: Serpent. No house. Any hollow would do. Lone solitary wanderer. Always vigilant. Talks (hisses) little.
Guru no. Twenty-three: Spider. All by itself. Spins out web, waits for food and then folds up.
Guru no. Twenty-four: Wasp. A worm caught and imprisoned by a wasp is so much overtaken by fear it thinks only of the wasp and , in course of time, is transformed into a wasp itself. This is Dhyanasiddhi.
· Chapter Four
Do all actions as service to the Lord Hari. Work is worship- this is being talked of generally by people who say they have no time to sit and think of God and their work itself is worship of God. Fair enough but they get benefit to the extant that they had God in their minds when work was on and not just an afterthought. Work as worship is a more positive statement. You raise the level of thoughts to God. Walking to office, think you are going to the temple for offering your work to God and you will feel springs under your feet and find pleasure in doing your work. Work would be better done and your mind would feel peace and not dejected.Work ceases to be a drudgery.
( In Geetaa, chapters are named this or that Yoga. Here, in Bhaagavatam, this term is not employed. )
· Chapter Five
Dream is real as long as it lasts. Experiences such as pleasures and pains are real for the duration of the dream. Similarly experiences of wakeful hours are real for the time being, they are negated during dreams. A realised person who has awakened to Reality, considers wakeful experiences as unreal as dream experiences. In fact he feels wakeful hours are just extended dreams. A dream is of short duration and wakeful hours of long duration. Other than this there is no other difference between the two. A man may go to sleep after a full meal. In a dream he will feel hungry and only a dream meal will satisfy his hunger. And he is happy in his dream. A person is destined to go through experiences in life. We call it Praarabdha. Some experiences we clear during dreams and others during wakeful hours. In the case of a Jnaani, a realized soul, he is detached from both experiences and his samchita-karma is worked out on superfast play mode like fast forward with video/audio cassettes. This ensures Release and non-return to a mortal body.
The stormy winds and lashing rains do not bother the ocean. Aatmaa is not bothered by pleasures or pains. They talk of waves as pains/ sorrow and foam over waves as pleasures. Both are water. In case of Aatmaa, both are alien and do not touch It. It was never bound and hence talk of release from bondage is redundant. Aatmaa is the only REALITY and any talk of realization of Aatmaa is illusionary or delusionary, if not outright Don Quixotic. Since God is within you and God is Bliss concentrate, so to say, physical pleasures or mental pleasures having no place in life and miseries are out of bounds. Sun never sees darkness. Neither does sun sets nor rises. Our bodily movements, as part and parcel of rotating world, we impose on the sun and come to believe that sun rises and sets. Sun is where he is and shining whole day. Aatmaa is where IT is and shining more brilliantly, nay, more dazzlingly all the time. Sun is in Aatmaa. Sun derives its light from Aatmaa.
· Chapter Six
Gopis are considered supreme because of their unconditional, unquestioning and complete surrender to Lord Krushna. All their actions are dedicated to Him. Incidentally Madhwaachaarya mentions 140,000 paths leading to GOD. Only four, we normally consider.
· Chapter Seven
Birth, place, people, water, time, occupation, scriptures, object of contemplation, mantras and purificatory rites are the ten aspects governing our lives. Birth is not in our control. Try to tread the Saatvic path.
Praanaayaama is control of breath with the purpose of gaining mastery over mind. This is like holding the bull by the horns and gaining control over it. Devotion soothes the mind, like coaxing the mind with green grass. A still mind is blissful. No external object is required for happiness. This comes as a revelation. Dharma is Saatvic, Adharma is rajasic and taamasic.
Brahman is SAT. Brahman is REALITY. Brahman is EXISTENCE. World is asat, unreal and nonexistent. Creator is real and the created unreal.
Reality is what is eternal, unborn and unchangeable. I am so and so is going off a tangent. I AM is Reality. “I AM THAT I AM, ” is the only sentence in the Bible which is in all capital letters. Bible’s God is I AM, the word-meaning of the name Jehovah. “Aham,” is the first Name of God, Ramana had declared. “Even OM is next in line.” Similarly, Brahman is CONCIOUSNESS. Brahman is Self-conscious, not conscious of anything else, nor cognised by anything else. Nothing else exists.
And Brahman is BLISS. Pleasures and happiness are infinitesimal fractions of bliss as it were.
· Chapter Eight
Of all paths ,Bhakti is best and easy, declares the Bhaagavatam. (Now what is easy to one may not be easy to another whose constitution is different, propensities and tendencies are different and upbringing is different. Hence his interests are different. “This is the best ”is only to strengthen the faith of a person on a particular path.) A Guru sees the strong point of the disciple and guides him in line so that he easily grasps and begins practice.
· Chapter Nine
This chapter deals with Siddhis. Mystic and miraculous powers. These should not be considered by spiritual aspirants. The nature of Siddhis and procedures to obtain each is explained in detail. A warning is given that Siddhis are stumbling blocks on any path and are better not aimed at nor strived for.
Once you are blessed with realization, one or more Siddhis may come to you, either in case you had thought of it in earlier stages or God has a special mission to fulfill His Plans through you. A Jnaani is not deluded and does not lose sight of God. Of miracles in his presence or miracles experienced by devotees elsewhere, Ramana showed least interest. Such things happen, he would explain away. No man of God ever cared for such power even when so empowered. If and when they exercised the power, it was to glorify God, to help an ardent devotee in trouble calling on God for succor.
I have recorded notes on Siddhis only to clarify how knowledgeable and powerful our ancestors were and the potency of Mantras.
Ashta Siddhis. There are eight main Siddhis.1) Animaa: Reducing the size of body to the size of an atom! 2) Mahimaa: Magnifying the size of body to gigantic proportions. 3) Laghimaa: Extreme lightening of body weight. 4) Prapti: Getting hooked to another’s senses and enjoying. Sitting in Bangalore one can see the beauty of Himaalayan peaks with some Sherpa’s eyes or listen to Bhimsen Joshi singing in Kolkaataa. 5)Prakaashya: Live video show of past events when somebody talks of an event he saw long back and somewhere else. 6) Isita: Control over Maayaa and make it follow your wishes. 7)Vasita: Non-attachment to sensuous pleasures and 8)Kaamyapraapti: experiencing full sensuous pleasures with no contact with any senses.
There are 15 derivatives from these eight Siddhis.
1) Immunity from hunger, thirst and pain.
2) Hearing voices from any corner of the world, nay Universe.
3) Seeing sights out of sighting distances and beyond vision.
4) Bodily travel at jet-speed to any corner of the world.
5) Physical change of body to any desired form.
6) Leaving one’s own body and entering any other body.
7) Decide the time for casting off the body. Yama has to await your call.
8) Participation in heavenly pleasures.
9) Attainment of any desired end.
10) Exercising unquestioned and unobstructed power over others.
11) Viewing past, present and future of anybody.( Every person is a broadcasting station of his life over all his lives. You have only to decode the transmissions.-Vivekaananda)
12) Capacity to withstand world of duality ie heat and cold, pleasure and pain and other dualities.
13) Mind reading.
14) Capacity to neutralize power of fire, sun, water and other natural forces.
15) Always a winner. Never a loser, unless you wanted to lose.
· Chapter Ten
This chapter is in line with Chapter-11(Vibhooti Yoga )of Geetaa.
· Chapter Eleven
On Chaturvarnaashramas. The four Varnas and four Ashramas.
Varnas are classification of men into four groups based on their natural propensities, not necessarily based on their birth or families : Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shoodras. In Satya Yuga there was only one Class and was called Hamsa. Vedas had only one all comprising word OM. The Varnaashramas began with Tretaayuga. Vedas were further revealed.
· Chapter Twelve
More of duties of the four Varnas. (Yes, it is talking more of duties and not rights. Over the years, the upper class asserted their rights and slackened on performance of duties. This has led to bad blood. It is for Brahmins to revert back to discipline. No use blaming politicians for playing the SC/ST or the intelligentsia only talk of degeneration.)
It is for the benefit of mankind if Brahminhood is rejuvenated, taking care that the maligned Brahminism does not raise its head. The present world is having two Varnas, the rich and the poor at all levels, beginning from societies to nations.
Mukhyapraana is God’s attribute.( It is this attribute that manifested as Hanumaan of Raamaayana and as Madhwaachaarya of our times. God is Paramaatmaa and we individuals are Jeevaatmaa. Thus Mukhyapraana is part of our constitution and manifests as Life-force and further IT splits as Panchapraanas All bodily functions such as breathing, ( inhaling and exhaling ) overall supervision of bodily welfare, distribution of food to different parts/organs of the body and excretion/procreation are functions of the fivefold Praanas. I believe ,at the time of death, Mukhyapraana leaves first. If other five Praanas delay the person goes into coma. Death is when the Panchapraanas depart, taking mind along. PRAANA is not AIR or wind which is air in motion. The Purushasookta clearly states that Vaayu was born of Praana. Then again, Vaayu is not the air we know as a mixture of Oxygen, Nitrogen and the rest of gases. We have regretfully lost knowledge of this science.)
PRAANA IS A FORCE; call it life-force. It is ethereal. Not requiring a medium. Ramana Maharshi says both mind and breath spring from the same source, Praana and that if one is controlled the other is automatically controlled Further, breath is the gross form of mind. Now Praana has not been touched by science so far. I wonder whether science will ever try it. It is beyond science’s comprehension, nay, beyond its range of conception to begin with.
· Chapter Twelve
More on duties of different Varnas A special discussion on disciplines for a recluse. Silence, (Measured speech) desirelessness and Praanaayaama are described in detail.
· Chapter Thirteen
24 principal guidelines are given for good life.
1) Ahimsaa, 2) Agreeable and truthful in speech,3) No thieving, 4) Nonattachment, 5) Modesty, 6) Non-accumulation of possession, 7) Faith, 8) Chastity, 9) Silence, 10) Firmness in resolve, 11) Fearlessness, 12) Forgiveness, 13) Purity (physical), 14) Purity (Mental), 15) Low-tone uttering of scriptural texts and mantras, 16) Austerity, 17) Oblations into the sacrificial fire, 18) Pursuit of religion, 19) Hospitality, 20) Worship of God, 21) Pilgrimage, 22) Social service, 23) Contentment and 24) Service to the Guru.
Lord Krushna tells Uddhava that He is just repeating what Bheeshma told Yudhishtira as parting advice. Earnestness of feelings and strength of purpose are stressed.
· Chapter Fourteen
On importance of Bhaktiyoga. Jnaanayoga is for advanced souls who would have passed through Bhakti stage in earlier lives. They are born with mature dispassion and detachment. Karmayoga is for persons desirous of fruits of actions, still in the grip of attachments. (However, as they proceed, dispassion does develops in them.) A bhakta has an innocent soul and all his actions are to please God, no thoughts of personal gains. He is not interested in pleasures of heaven even. God is with him and this world is his heaven.
Good and bad actions are not to be decided by the fruits they produce, by whether they give happiness or misery. What is pleasing to God is good like Arjuna killing foes on battlefield. What is unacceptable to God is bad and has to be shunned. Indra killed Vritraasura, son of a demoness. Vishnu was displeased as the father was a brahmin. Raavana was a sage’s son too. However his transgressed righteousness and Vishnu Himself descended to kill him. Killing animals for flesh to eat is not a bad action. Killing innocent animals for sports and for skin or tusks is sin.
Madhwaachaarya comments gods are Bhaktas. Men are Karmayogees. Advanced souls are Jnaanis. World is Karmabhoomi. Even Gods descend to earth for atonement for any misdeed. After rigorous saadhana, they return to heaven.
· Chapter Fifteen
The goal of the Vedas is Moksha i.e. final beatitude. Not heavenly pleasures. Heavenly pleasures are nothing but sugar-coated pills.
The process of enquiry into good and bad, the discriminatory knowledge (viveka), does not mark a man good or bad. Actions should be good. Distinguish between good and bad actions and emulate the good. Vedas are explained in three basic languages: 1)Guhya-secretive. People with less faith will not grasp the truth. An egoistic person may think he is God himself. This is wrong appreciation of the Mahaavaakya-Tatvamasi viz That Thou Art. A blind man with, faith can see God, whereas a man with eyes but without faith is blind. You cannot wake up a man if he is not actually asleep. A closed mind, you cannot open. Hence it is wise to be discriminative and be silent. 2) Darshana. Misinterpretation, being influenced by heretic scriptures. And 3) Samaadhi. Give the meaning exactly as the Lord meant.
· Chapter Sixteen
In chapter 13, the 28 Tattvas were mentioned. They are elaborated here.
The first group of nine. Prakruti, Purusha, Mahat, Ahankaara and the five Tanmaatras (Subtle elements viz Earth, Water, Fire, Wind and Sky. These are not the five entities we are familiar with.)
The second group comprises eleven. The five senses of perception (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin, called the cognitive senses), the five senses of action namely (hands, legs, tongue, and procreation, called the connative senses) and the mind.
The third group has the five gross elements, bearing the same names as the subtle elements.
And the final group has the three Gunas namely Satva, Rajas and Tamas.
Man has nine stages in life. In the womb, gestation, birth, infancy ,boyhood, youth, middle age, old age and death. At death, the mind taking the 10 senses along together with the with the latent tendencies leaves the gross body and attaches itself to a fresh new body. In between it may visit heaven or hell to enjoy or suffer. Appropriate body will be given for enjoyment of suffering. It the dying moments, the last thought is kept current and old memories are made latent. Sage Bharata was born a deer, as he was thinking of his pet deer in his last moments. It is advised that God be remembered towards last moments. Even after death the mourner will help the deceased by reciting scriptures. Modern science has come to the conclusion that the brain of a dead body continues to record inputs from different senses for quite some time after death. The senses weaken one by one and the last sense to record are the ears. .Hence the relatives of the deceased better avoid crying and lamenting and concentrate on reciting scriptures or singing Bhajans. That should be the parting gift or tribute to the departed.
The chapter raises a question about actions in preparation for death, the answer follows in the next chapter.
(The Lord resides in the heart of every individual. He is Paramaatmaa. Limited to any single entity, He is Jeevaatmaa. They are distinct and different, says Dwaita. Adwaita denies duality and says both are one and same. Vishistaadwaita is in between, a qualified existence for the Jeevaatmaa as a separate entity Ramana says that since all three concepts talk of Jeevaatmaa with which we identify ourselves , it is worth to find out the truth of our existence as Jeevaatmaa. The question of Paramaatmaa can be tackled subsequently. Once you succeed in grasping the Jeevaatmaa, you will come to know of Paramaatmmaa Who has said He resides in you! All doubts vanish. All actions fall off like old ripened leaves. It comes as revelation that you are Bliss yourself and your happiness has no connection with your physical activities.
I am not the physical body. I am Jeevaatmaa If Paramaatmaa is in the physical body, which I am not, and not in me as Jeevaatmaa, which is my essential entity, it would be ignorance on my part or accusing Paramaatmaa of falsehood that He resides in me! Aaatmaa is ONE. Dwaita has no legs. to stand upon.)
Three ‘languages to explain Vedas are mentioned in chapter 15. By permutations and combinations, 81 more languages are forecast.
The seven Vedic Chandas (meters ) are Gaayatree, Usnik, Anushtup, Bruhati, Pankti, Trishtup and Jagati. Gaayatree has 24 letters. Add four more letters to each successive meter. For example, Anushtup has 32 letters. This is the first form of shloka and was a spontaneous expression of Vaalmiki’s sorrow that gave us the Raamayana.
Our alphabet has 40 letters. 25 sparshas (consonants comprising the sibilants Ka to Pa, first sounded off Lord Shiva’s Damaru,) 7 Swaras (vowels A to Ou), 4 Ooshmas (Aspirants sha, s’ha sa and ha )and 4 Anthastas (ya, ra, la and ha.)
· Chapter Seventeen
There are five claimants to your wealth :Gods, Manes, humans, subhumans and the Brahmin Seers. Manes are our elders who became ghosts (Pretaas) immediately after death but raised to the level of manes (Pitraas) ie habitating heaven before next birth. Animals, birds etc are subhumans. Non-distribution of wealth to the five entities fifteen evils result: 1)Misappropriation, 2) Violence, 3) Falsehood, 4) Hypocrisy, 5) Covetousness, 6) Anger, 7)Pride, 8) Arrogance, 9) Discord, 10) Enmity, 11) Distrust, 12) Rivalry, 13) Fondness for opposite sex, 14) Gambling and 15) Drunkenness.
A pious soul is at peace with himself and by himself whether wealth comes his way or his wealth is taken away. He remains calm and composed in mind all the time and in all circumstances. Praise or abuse are both taken in with equipoise.
This chapter has the Bhikshu-Geetaa, comprising 19 shlokas, on transient nature of the world, and recommending surrender to Lord Krushna.
· Chapter Eighteen
Process of creation of world and subsequent dissolution of it are described. In Krita Yuga people understood the Vedas as they were meant to propagate. Confusion raised head in Treta Yuga and deteriorated in Dwaapara Yuga. It is double trouble in Kali Yuga –misinterpretations and misunderstanding.
The created universe has 14 sub creations like one we live in.These 14 are grouped into three spheres 1)Bhooloka. Our world and 7 subterarian regions viz. Atala, Vitala, Talaatala, Mahaatala, Rasaatala and Paataala, 2) Bhuvarloka, comprising Swarloka, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka and Satyaloka and 3) Etheral loka.
Men and other living beings live on the earth. Demons and serpents live in subterranean regions.Gods inhabitate the Swarloka. Siddhas occupy the Etheral Loka.
· Chapter Nineteen
On play of Gunas. this is fully described in the Geetaa.
· Chapter Twenty
Cause of man’s downfall is the ego, identifying oneself with the body.
· Chapter Twentyone
Krita Yuga is fully described. Formal worship of God’s is prescribed. Shodshopachaara Pooja is dealt with in detail. Devotion is recommended for peacefoll living. Chapter Twenty two
A lucid exposition of the Supreme Sovereignty of the LORD and of the total dependence of Jeeva on the LORD is given.
· Chapter Twentythree
Upasamhaara. Sarvadhamaanparityajya Maamakam Sharanam Vrija, as in the concluding words in the Geetaa. Be in the world as God intended. Honour all. Denounce none.
OM SHANTI, SHANTI, SHANTIHI
Note :Our Scriptures comprise 14 Mahaavidyaas as enumerated below.
Four VEDAS-1) Rugveda, 2)Yajurveda, 3)Saamaveda and 4Atharvaveda.Aaranyakas and Braahmanas are sections of Vedas.
Six Vedaangas 1) Shikshaa, 2) Vyaakarana, 3)Chandas, 4) Niruktas, 5)Jyotishya and 6) Kalpa.
Four Upaangas 1)Meemamsa, 2) Nyaaya, 3) Puraanas(18 Mahaapuraanas, 18 Upapuraanas and two Itihaasas) and 4) Dharmashaastras.(Manusmruti comes here. )
Brahmasootras are Aphorisms on Vedas. Upavedas deal with 1)Aayurveda, 2)Arthashastra, 3)Dhanurveda and 4) Gandharvaveda. Dance and arts are found in the last Upaveda.
Upanishads come at the end (Anta) of Vedas and are known as Vedaantas.
Brahmasootras, Upanishads and Geetaa are together called Prashnatraya. All three Aachaaryas have written commentaries on them.